An Institute Devoted to Developing the Discipline of Relating
Technosphere to Biosphere

J.P. Allen, M. Nelson and T.P. Snyder, Institute of Ecotechnics, in The Environmentalist, 4 (1984) 205-218, Geneva, 1985.


Synergetic Press, founded in 1969, has published key books on ethnobotany, biospherics and cultures

Synergetic Press goes beyond traditional publishing by organizing speaking events, colloquium and symposiums to help bring the wealth of amazing experiences and knowledge of our authors and directors to a broader community. 

Biospherics Papers

H. Morowitz., J.P. Allen, M. Nelson and A. Alling, 2005. Closure as a Scientific Concept and its Application to Ecosystem Ecology and the Science of the Biosphere, paper presented at COSPAR, Paris, 2004; Advances in Space Research 36(7):1305-1311.
J.P. Allen, M. Nelson, A.K. Alling, The legacy of Biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems, paper presented at the World Space Congress, COSPAR general assembly, Houston, TX, October 2002, Advances in Space Research, 2003, 31(7):1629-1640.
M. Nelson, N.S. Pechurkin, J.P. Allen, L.A. Somova and J.I. Gitelson, 2010. Bioengineering of Closed Ecological Systems for Ecological Research, Space Life Support and the Science of Biospherics, Chapter 11 in Volume 10, 2010, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-60327-140-0 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, Editors: Lawrence K. Wang, Volodymyr Ivanov and Joo-Hwa Tay,The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ
H.T. Odum, 1996. Scales of ecological engineering, Ecological Engineering 6 (1996) 7 – 19.

Biosphere 2 Papers

J. Allen and M. Nelson, 1999. Biospherics and Biosphere 2, mission one (1991-1993), Ecological Engineering 13: 15-29.
W.F. Dempster, Biosphere 2 Engineering Design, 1999. Ecological Engineering 13 (1999): 31–42
V.C. Engel and H.T. Odum, 1999. Simulation of community metabolism and atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations in Biosphere 2, Ecological Engineering 13 (1999) 107–134
Nelson, M., T. Burgess, A. Alling N. Alvarez-Romo, W. Dempster, R. Walford, and J. Allen. 1993. Using a closed ecological system to study Earth’s biosphere: Initial results from Biosphere 2. BioScience 43(4): 225-236
S. Silverstone and M. Nelson, 1996. Food production and nutrition in Biosphere 2: results from the first mission, September 1991 to September 1993, Advances In Space Research, Vol. 18, No. 4/5:49-61
M. Nelson, W. F. Dempster, N. Alvarez-Romo, T. MacCallum. 1994, Atmospheric Dynamics and bioregenerative technologies in a soil-based ecological life support system: Initial results from Biosphere 2, Advances in Space Research 14 (11):417-426.
W.F. Dempster, 1994. Methods for measurement and control of leakage in CELSS and their application in the Biosphere 2 facility, Advances in Space Research 14(11):331-335.
H.T. Odum and B.V.D. Marino (eds.), 1999. Biosphere 2 Research, Past and Present, Elsevier, Amsterdam, also published as a special issue of Ecological Engineering (1999) volume 13. Guest editorial by Bruno Marion and H.T. Odum, Biosphere 2 Introduction and Research Progress.
M. Nelson and W.F. Dempster, 1996. Living in Space: Results from Biosphere 2’s Initial Closure, An Early Testbed for Closed Ecological Systems on Mars. Strategies for Mars: A guide to himn exploration. 86:363-390.

Laboratory Biosphere and Modular Biospheres

M. Nelson, J.P. Allen, and W.F. Dempster, Modular Biospheres – A new platform for education and research – paper at COSPAR 2006 in Beijing, Advances in Space Research 41(5):787-797 (2008).
W.F. Dempster, A. Alling, M. van Thillo, J.P. Allen, S. Silverstone and M. Nelson, Technical review of the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility, presented at COSPAR/IAF meeting, Houston, October 2002, Advances in Space Research, 34: 1477-1482, 2004.
M. Nelson, W.F. Dempster, S. Silverstone, A. Alling, J.P. Allen and M. van Thillo, Crop Yield and Light/Energy Efficiency in a Closed Ecological System: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato, Advances in Space Research 35 (9): 1539-1543, 2005.
W.F. Dempster, J. Allen, A.. Alling, M. Nelson, S. Silverstone. and M. van Thillo, 2005. Atmospheric dynamics in the “Laboratory Biosphere” with wheat and sweet potato crops, Advances in Space Research 35:1552-1556.
M. Nelson, W.F. Dempster, J.P. Allen, S. Silverstone, A. Alling, Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system, Advances in Space Research 41(5):748-753 (2008)
Dempster, William F., Nelson, M., Silverstone, S., Allen, J.P. Carbon dioxide dynamics of combined crops of wheat, cowpea, pinto beans in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system, Advances in Space Research 43: 1229-1235 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.asr.2008.12.005

Closed Ecological System Research

M. Nelson, W.F. Dempster and J. Allen, 2009. The Water Cycle in Closed Ecological Systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere Systems, Advances in Space Research 44(12)1404-1412.
M. Nelson, J. Allen, A. Alling, W.F.Dempster, and S. Silverstone, Earth applications of closed ecological systems: relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere, paper presented at the World Space Congress, COSPAR general assembly, Houston, TX, October 2002, Advances in Space Research, 2003, 31(7): 1649-1656.
W.F. Dempster, 2008. Tightly closed ecological systems reveal atmospheric subtleties – experience from Biosphere 2, Advances in Space Research 42(2008):1951-1956.


Allen, John, Origins of human cultures, their subjugation by the technosphere, the beginning of an ethnosphere, and steps needed to complete the ethnosphere, Journal of Ethnics in Science and Environmental Politics ESEP 2003:7-24.
Allen, John, The Evolution of Humanity: Past, Present, and Possible Future, a review of humanity’s taxonomic classification and proposal to classify humanity as a sixth kingdom, Symbolia. Reports on some of the human modeling conditions for Biosphere 2 and research done since that project from 1995-2001.

Biomic Projects

Nelson, M., S. Silverstone, K.C. Reiss, T. Vakil and M. Robertson, Enriched secondary subtropical forest through line-planting for sustainable timber production in Puerto Rico, Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 309(3):51-63 (November 2011).
M. Nelson, S. Silverstone, P. Burrowes, R. Joglar, K.C. Reiss, M. Robertson and T. Vakil, 2010. The Impact of Hardwood Line-Planting on Tree and Amphibian Biodiversity in a Secondary Wet Tropical Forest, Southeast Puerto Rico, Journal of Sustainable Forestry 29(5):503-516.
Tredwell, R. and M. Nelson, Effective Approaches for Environmental & Wastewater Management and Training – The Birdwood Downs Case Studies in the Kimberley Region Of West Australia, paper for the Murdoch University/ Conference, July 2006, Sustainability of Indigenous Communities, Murdoch, West Australia.

Wastewater Gardens and Ecotechnic Approaches

M. Nelson and H.L. Bohn, Soil-based biofiltration for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application, Journal of Environmental Protection, doi 10.4236/jep.2011, published online.
Nelson, M., Wolverton, B.C., Plants + soil/wetland microbes: Food crop systems that also clean air and water, Advances in Space Research (2011)47: 582-590, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2010.10.007
M. Nelson, S. Silverstone and J. Poynter, 1993. Biosphere 2 Agriculture: Testbed for intensive, sustainable, non-polluting farming systems, Outlook on Agriculture, Vol 13, No. 3, Sept. 1993 pp. 167-174, CAB International, Oxford, U.K. .
M. Nelson, 1998. Wetland systems for bioregenerative reclamation of wastewater — from closed systems to developing countries, Life Support and Biosphere Science, 5(3): 357-369.
Nelson, M., Finn, M, Wilson, C., Zabel, B., van Thillo, M., Hawes, P., and R. Fernandez, 1999. Bioregenerative recycle of wastewater in Biosphere 2 using a created wetland: two year results, J. Ecological Engineering 13: 189-197.
Nelson, M., Odum, H.T., Brown, M.T., and A. Alling, 2001. Living off the land: resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment, invited paper presented at COSPAR conference, Warsaw, Poland, July, 2000, Advances in Space Research 27(9): 1546-1556.
Nelson, M., R. Tredwell, A. Czech, G. Depuy, M. Suraja and F. Cattin, Worldwide Applications of Wastewater Gardens and Ecoscaping: Decentralised Systems which Transform Sewage from Problem to Productive, Sustainable Resource, Environmental Technology Centre, Murdoch University, Fremantle, W.A. July 2006, published in: Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems : International Conference, Fremantle, Western Australia, 10-12 July 2006, edited by Kuruvilla Mathew, Stewart Dallas, Goen Ho, IWA Publications, London, 2008
M. Nelson, F. Cattin, M. Rajendran, R. Tredwell and L. Hafouda, Value-adding through creation of high diversity gardens and ecoscapes in subsurface flow constructed wetlandsCase studies in Algeria and Australia of constructed wetland systems, paper presented at the 11th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control November 2008, Indore, India.